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Q25. What happens when the Linux kernel can't mount the root filesystem when booting?

A. An error message is shown, showing which device couldn't be mounted or informing that init couldn't be found.

B. An error message is shown and the system reboots after a keypress.

C. An error message is shown and the system boots in maintenance mode.

D. An error message is shown and the administrator is asked to specify a valid root filesystem to continue the boot process.

E. An error message is shown, stating that the corresponding kernel module couldn't be loaded.


Q26. User Joseph has successfully extracted and compiled a program from source code. Installing the binaries produces errors. What is the most likely reason?

A. The source code was compiled for a different CPU

B. The permissions set in the /usr/bin directory are wrong

C. The binaries require root privileges to be installed

D. The wrong prefix was used during configuration of the source code

Answer: C


/usr/local usually requires root privileges to write to

Q27. The following is an excerpt from the output of tcpdump -nli eth1 'udp': 13:03:17.277327 IP 192.168.123.S.106S > 192.168.S.112.S3: 436S3+ A? lpi.org. (2S)

13:03:17.S98624 IP 192.168.S.112.S3 > 192.168.123.S.106S: 436S3 1/0/0 A

24.21S.7.109 (41)

Which network service or protocol was used?






Answer: D


192.168.S.112.S3 shows that we connect to Port S3 and /etc/services specifies port S3 as DNS.

# cat /etc/services

Domain S3/tcp # name-domain server

Domain S3/udp here is another example of tcpdump catching a DNS request and response:

11:17:44.S8SS23 IP > 7880+ A? www.google.at. (31)

11:17:44.621611 IP > 7880 8/0/0 CNAME www.google.com., CNAME

www.l.google.com., A 209.8S.13S.103, A 209.8S.13S.147, A

209.8S.13S.10S, A 209.8S.13S.104, A 209.8S.13S.99, A 209.8S.13S.106 (17S}

Q28. It is possible to configure kernel parameters at runtime (e.g. the maximum size of the shared memory segment (shmmax)). In which TWO ways can this be changed to 2GB (2147483648 Bytes) on a running system?

A. Edit /etc/shmmax and set the parameter to 2147483648.

B. sysctl shmmax=2147483648.

C. sysctl  kernel.shmmax=2147483648

D. echo 2147483648 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax

E. export  kernel.shmmax=2147483648

Answer: C, D 

Q29. A Linux machine freezes during boot. To boot directly to a shell prompt so that editing of files and manual starting of services is possible which command line must be passed to the kernel for the boot process?

A. init=/bin/bash

B. 1

C. runlevel=1

D. sh

E. /bin/sh

Answer: A


See   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Init#Skipping_init

In Linux systems, with most modern bootloaders (such as LILO or GRUB}, users can change which process the kernel

spawns at the end of its initialization from the normal default of /sbin/init. This is generally done by typing init=/foo/bar at the bootloader's prompt. Appending init=/bin/bash, for example, will bring up a single root shell, without a password.

Q30. DNSSEC is used for?

A. Encrypted DNS queries between nameservers.

B. Cryptographic authentication of DNS zones.

C. Secondary DNS queries for local zones.

D. Defining a secure DNS section.

E. Querying a secure DNS section.

Answer: B


See      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System_Security_Extensions

DNSSEC was designed to protect Internet resolvers (clients} from forged DNS data, such as that created by DNS cache poisoning. All answers in DNSSEC are digitally signed. By checking the digital signature, a DNS resolver is able to check if the information is identical (correct and complete} to the information on the authoritative DNS server.

Q31. What is the purpose of vgextend?

A. Extend a volume group's footprint on disk

B. Add physical volumes to a volume group

C. Increase the number of days between scheduled error checking

D. Create a volume group which uses all available space on disk

Answer: B


From the man pages:

vgextend - add physical volumes to a volume group

Q32. On a system with separate partitions for /, /usr, /var, /tmp, which filesystem[s] can safely be mounted readonly?

A. /var, /usr

B. /var

C. /usr, /, /tmp

D. /usr

E. /tmp

Answer: D


/tmp and /var both need to be written to. /usr is the most static of the directories (excluding /usr/local}