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Q265. You are setting up some IAM user policies and have also become aware that some services support resource-based permissions, which let you attach policies to the service's resources instead of to IAM users or groups. Which of the below statements is true in regards to resource-level permissions?

A. All services support resource-level permissions for all actions.

B. Resource-level permissions are supported by Amazon CIoudFront

C. All services support resource-level permissions only for some actions.

D. Some services support resource-level permissions only for some actions. 

Answer: D


AWS Identity and Access Management is a web service that enables Amazon Web Services (AWS) customers to manage users and user permissions in AWS. The service is targeted at organizations with multiple users or systems that use AWS products such as Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, and the AWS Management Console. With IAM, you can centrally manage users, security credentials such as access keys, and permissions that control which AWS resources users can access.

In addition to supporting IAM user policies, some services support resource-based permissions, which let you attach policies to the service's resources instead of to IAM users or groups. Resource-based permissions are supported by Amazon S3, Amazon SNS, and Amazon SQS.

The resource-level permissions service supports IAM policies in which you can specify indMdual resources using Amazon Resource Names (ARNs) in the poIicy's Resource element.

Some services support resource-level permissions only for some actions.

Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/Using_SpecificProducts.html

Q266. A user has launched a large EBS backed EC2 instance in the US-East-1a region. The user wants to achieve Disaster Recovery (DR) for that instance by creating another small instance in Europe. How can the user achieve DR?

A. Copy the instance from the US East region to the EU region

B. Use the "Launch more like this" option to copy the instance from one region to another

C. Copy the running instance using the "|nstance Copy" command to the EU region

D. Create an AMI of the instance and copy the AMI to the EU region. Then launch the instance from the EU AMI



To launch an EC2 instance it is required to have an AMI in that region. If the AMI is not available in that region, then create a new AMI or use the copy command to copy the AMI from one region to the other region.

Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/CopyingAMIs.htmI

Q267. If I want to run a database in an Amazon instance, which is the most recommended Amazon storage opHon?

A. Amazon Instance Storage

B. Amazon EBS

C. You can't run a database inside an Amazon instance.

D. Amazon 53 

Answer: B

Q268. In the most recent company meeting, your CEO focused on the fact that everyone in the organization needs to make sure that all of the infrastructure that is built is truly scalable. Which of the following statements is incorrect in reference to scalable architecture?

A. A scalable service is capable of handling heterogeneity.

B. A scalable service is resilient.

C. A scalable architecture won't be cost effective as it grows.

D. Increasing resources results in a proportional increase in performance. 

Answer: C


In AWS it is critical to build a scalable architecture in order to take advantage of a scalable infrastructure. The cloud is designed to provide conceptually infinite scalability. However, you cannot leverage all that scalability in infrastructure if your architecture is not scalable. Both have to work together. You will have to identify the monolithic components and bottlenecks in your architecture, identify the areas where you  cannot leverage the on-demand provisioning capabilities in your architecture, and work to refactor your application, in order to leverage the scalable infrastructure and take advantage of the cloud.

Characteristics of a truly scalable application:

Increasing resources results in a proportional increase in performance A scalable service is capable of handling heterogeneity

A scalable service is operationally efficient A scalable service is resilient

A scalable service should become more cost effective when it grows (Cost per unit reduces as the number of units increases)

Reference: http://media.amazonwebservices.com/AWS_CIoud_Best_Practices.pdf

Q269. A company wants to review the security requirements of Glacier. Which of the below mentioned statements is true with respect to the AWS Glacier data security?

A. All data stored on Glacier is protected with AES-256 serverside encryption.

B. All data stored on Glacier is protected with AES-128 serverside encryption.

C. The user can set the serverside encryption flag to encrypt the data stored on Glacier.

D. The data stored on Glacier is not encrypted by default. 

Answer: A


For Amazon Web Services, all the data stored on Amazon Glacier is protected using serverside encryption. AWS generates separate unique encryption keys for each Amazon Glacier archive, and encrypts it using AES-256. The encryption key then encrypts itself using AES-256 with a master key that is stored in a secure location.

Reference: http://media.amazonwebservices.com/AWS_Security_Best_Practices.pdf

Q270. An ERP application is deployed across multiple AZs in a single region. In the event of failure, the Recovery Time Objective (RTO) must be less than 3 hours, and the Recovery Point Objective (RPO) must be 15 minutes the customer realizes that data corruption occurred roughly 1.5 hours ago.

What DR strategy could be used to achieve this RTO and RPO in the event of this kind of failure?

A. Take hourly DB backups to 53, with transaction logs stored in 53 every 5 minutes.

B. Use synchronous database master-slave replication between two availability zones.

C. Take hourly DB backups to EC2 Instance store volumes with transaction logs stored In 53 every 5 minutes.

D. Take 15 minute DB backups stored In Glacier with transaction logs stored in 53 every 5 minutes. 

Answer: A

Q271. Your application is using an ELB in front of an Auto Scaling group of web/application sewers deployed across two AZs and a MuIti-AZ RDS Instance for data persistence.

The database CPU is often above 80% usage and 90% of 1/0 operations on the database are reads. To improve performance you recently added a single-node Memcached EIastiCache Cluster to cache frequent DB query results. In the next weeks the overall workload is expected to grow by 30%.

Do you need to change anything in the architecture to maintain the high availability or the application with the anticipated additional load? Why?

A. Yes, you should deploy two Memcached EIastiCache Clusters in different AZs because the RDS instance will not be able to handle the load if the cache node fails.

B. No, if the cache node fails you can always get the same data from the DB without having any availability impact.

C. No, if the cache node fails the automated EIastiCache node recovery feature will prevent any availability impact.

D. Yes, you should deploy the Memcached EIastiCache Cluster with two nodes in the same AZ as the RDS DB master instance to handle the load if one cache node fails.



EIastiCache for Memcached

The primary goal of caching is typically to offload reads from your database or other primary data source. In most apps, you have hot spots of data that are regularly queried, but only updated periodically. Think of the front page of a blog or news site, or the top 100 leaderboard in an online game. In this type of case, your app can receive dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of requests for the same data before it's   updated again. Having your caching layer handle these queries has several advantages. First, it's considerably cheaper to add an in-memory cache than to scale up to a larger database cluster. Second,

an in-memory cache is also easier to scale out, because it's easier to distribute an in-memory cache horizontally than a relational database.

Last, a caching layer provides a request buffer in the event of a sudden spike in usage. If your app or game ends up on the front page of Reddit or the App Store, it's not unheard of to see a spike that is 10 to 100 times your normal application load. Even if you autoscale your application instances, a IOx request spike will likely make your database very unhappy.

Let's focus on EIastiCache for Memcached first, because it is the best fit for a caching focused solution. We'II revisit Redislater in the paper, and weigh its advantages and disadvantages.

Architecture with EIastiCache for Memcached

When you deploy an EIastiCache Memcached cluster, it sits in your application as a separate tier alongside your database. As mentioned previously, Amazon EIastiCache does not directly communicate with your database tier, or indeed have any particular knowledge of your database. A simplified deployment for a web application looks something like this:

In this architecture diagram, the Amazon EC2 application instances are in an Auto Scaling group, located behind a load balancer using Elastic Load Balancing, which distributes requests among the instances. As requests come into a given EC2 instance, that EC2 instance is responsible for communicating with EIastiCache and the database tier. For development purposes, you can begin with a single EIastiCache node to test your application, and then scale to additional cluster nodes by modifying t he EIastiCache cluster. As you add additional cache nodes, the EC2 application instances are able to distribute cache  keys across multiple EIastiCache nodes. The most common practice is to use client-side sharding to distribute keys across cache nodes, which we will discuss later in this paper.

When you launch an EIastiCache cluster, you can choose the Availability Zone(s) that the cluster lives in. For best performance, you should configure your cluster to use the same Availability Zones as your application servers. To launch an EIastiCache cluster in a specific Availability Zone, make sure to specify the Preferred Zone(s) option during cache cluster creation. The Availability Zones that you specify will be where EIastiCache will launch your cache nodes. We recommend that you select Spread Nodes Across Zones, which tells EIastiCache to distribute cache nodes across these zones as evenly as possible. This distribution will mitigate the impact of an Availability Zone disruption on your E|astiCache nodes. The trade-off is that some of the requests from your application to EIastiCache will go to a node in a different Availability Zone, meaning latency will be slightly higher.

For more details, refer to Creating a Cache Cluster in the Amazon EIastiCache User Guide.

As mentioned at the outset, EIastiCache can be coupled with a wide variety of databases. Here is an example architecture that uses Amazon DynamoDB instead of Amazon RDS and IV|ySQL:

This combination of DynamoDB and EIastiCache is very popular with mobile and game companies, because DynamoDB allows for higher write throughput at lower cost than traditional relational databases. In addition, DynamoDB uses a key-value access pattern similar to EIastiCache, which also simplifies the programming model. Instead of using relational SQL for the primary database but then key-value patterns for the cache, both the primary database and cache can be programmed similarly.

In this architecture pattern, DynamoDB remains the source of truth for data, but application reads are offloaded to EIastiCache for a speed boost.

Q272. When you view the block device mapping for your instance, you can see only the EBS volumes, not the instance store volumes.

A. Depends on the instance type


C. Depends on whether you use API call


Answer: D